The Dr. Yakov Kots has become famous for using theelectro stimulation for training of athletes of the USSR and his studies were made public at the Olympic Games in Montreal (1976) when it became known that Soviet athletes.
The current used for stimulation of the athletes was called Russian current or kots current and Began to be used by athletes from other countries to become one of the sports training.
Kotz, through experimentation and research, defined the characteristics of the current that carries his name:
– current form: sinusoidal (through muscle tissue in alternating directions)
– 2500 Hz frequency when applied to the muscle (1000 Hz if applied directly to the nerve)
– dispensing with 10 msec duration pulse trains.
To avoid premature fatigue of the muscle, which appears after about 12/15 sec. of continuous stimulation, Kotz called in 10 sec. the maximum duration of the work phase (supplied in packs of 10 msec, alternating stimulation to 10 msec, break) followed by 50 sec. break with a Duty Cycle of 1:5.
Compared to low-frequency motor exciting currents, this current ensured a greater muscle recruitment, deep action and increased tolerability.
L ’ use of corrKotz bodies in the medical field
New acqscientific uisizioni on the mechanism of muscle contraction and a technology capable of generating pulses formand different (square, triangular, trapezoidal, etc.) made sure that electrical stimulation of the muscle for ’ sports training to abandon progressively the sinusoidal current to use the more symmetrical biphasic square-wave current performance with frequencies ranging from 30 to 120 Hz.
Kotz current However continued to be used in the medical field where is still a good application for its characteristics:
1) good muscle recruitment
2) deep action
Kotz current motor exciting effect, unlike other types of current, is realized in the deep muscles because the skin against these currents lower resistance. It is shown that the electrical impedance of the skin decreases with increasing frequency.
Among the medium-frequency motor exciting currents, sinusoidal currents are better tolerated by the patient. This happens because, by increasing the frequency of the current, there is a discrepancy between the thresholds of muscular contraction and the painful sensation.
At a frequency of 3,000-8,000 Hz the painful sensitivity threshold is higher than excito-motor. At these frequencies the electrical pulses stimulate the motor nerves and less those of pain sensitivity and therefore cause muscular contractions practically painless.
Applications of Kotz currents
The sinusoidal current Kotz has found an important field of application in orthopedics in the treatment of scoliosis according to SPES (Paravertebral Surface Electro Stimulation).
The paravertebral electrostimulation is a relatively recent technique and its validity remains however still being discussed but we can recognize that in carefully selected cases allows you to defer the use of the corset without any risk to the patient.
Another area of application of electrotherapy in the muscle innervated consists of FES, functional electrical stimulation.
About FES there are numerous scientific papers describing electrostimulation hemiplegics introducing electrical stimulation of muscles spastic not devoid of nervous control, with the purpose of evoking a muscular contraction that produces a useful functional movement. It should be recalled that hemiplegics there is a motor neuron injury the second muscle paralysis but a paralysis of the movement; electrical excitability of peripheral nerves as well as the ability to muscle contractions are not altered so there are the conditions for the application of electrical stimulation.
Electrotherapy with currents of Kots is finally also uses muscle transplants, both to ensure proper muscle trophism to its new function as a transport and to help the patient to become aware of different functional situation, thanks to the afferent produced by muscle contraction induced.